Saturday, July 5, 2008

What is the Registry?

The Registry is a database used to store settings and options for the 32 bit versions of Microsoft Windows including Windows 95, 98, ME and NT/2000. It contains information and settings for all the hardware, software, users, and preferences of the PC. Whenever a user makes changes to a Control Panel settings, or File Associations, System Policies, or installed software, the changes are reflected and stored in the Registry.

The physical files that make up the registry are stored differently depending on your version of Windows; under Windows 95 & 98 it is contained in two hidden files in your Windows directory, called USER.DAT and SYSTEM.DAT, for Windows Me there is an additional CLASSES.DAT file, while under Windows NT/2000 the files are contained seperately in the %SystemRoot%\System32\Config directory. You can not edit these files directly, you must use a tool commonly known as a "Registry Editor" to make any changes (using registry editors will be discussed later in the article).

The Structure of The Registry
The Registry has a hierarchal structure, although it looks complicated the structure is similar to the directory structure on your hard disk, with Regedit being similar to Windows Explorer.

Each main branch (denoted by a folder icon in the Registry Editor, see left) is called a Hive, and Hives contains Keys. Each key can contain other keys (sometimes referred to as sub-keys), as well as Values. The values contain the actual information stored in the Registry. There are three types of values; String, Binary, and DWORD - the use of these depends upon the context.

There are six main branches, each containing a specific portion of the information stored in the Registry. They are as follows:


* HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT - This branch contains all of your file association mappings to support the drag-and-drop feature, OLE information, Windows shortcuts, and core aspects of the Windows user interface.
* HKEY_CURRENT_USER - This branch links to the section of HKEY_USERS appropriate for the user currently logged onto the PC and contains information such as logon names, desktop settings, and Start menu settings.
* HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE - This branch contains computer specific information about the type of hardware, software, and other preferences on a given PC, this information is used for all users who log onto this computer.
* HKEY_USERS - This branch contains individual preferences for each user of the computer, each user is represented by a SID sub-key located under the main branch.
* HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG - This branch links to the section of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE appropriate for the current hardware configuration.
* HKEY_DYN_DATA - This branch points to the part of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, for use with the Plug-&-Play features of Windows, this section is dymanic and will change as devices are added and removed from the system.
Remember back in the good old days of Windows 3.1 when you could open up the Win.ini file in a text editor and remove an item from the RUN= line to disable it from running at startup? With Windows 9x and above, the Win.ini file became less useful because 32-bit programs were set to run at startup from within the Registry instead.

One way to selectively disable programs from loading at startup is to use MSCONFIG (from the Run command) to deselect certain items. Another way to remove them is to edit the Registry directly. Consider the following locations:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

for applications that start up for all users

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

for applications that start up when the current user logs on

Remove the entry for a program by right-clicking it and selecting Delete to prevent it from loading.

Grouping multiple open windows

Windows XP will group multiple open windows (IE windows for example) into one group on the task bar to keep the taskbar clear. This can be annoying at times - especially when comparing different web pages because you have to go back to the task bar, click on the group and then click on the page you want and then you only get one page because you have to click on each one separately. I think the default for this is 8 windows - any combination of apps or utilities open.

You can modify this behavior by adding this registry key at:

HKEY_CURRRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced\

add a Dword value of type REG_DWORD named [TaskbarGroupSize]

modify "TaskbarGroupSize" entry to be the number of windows you want open before XP starts to group them on the task bar.

A value of 2 will cause the Taskbar buttons to always group

Another tweak is to disable or enable recent documents history. This can be done at:

HKEY_CURRRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer\

this key should already be present - if it isn't you'll need to add it:

Add a Binary value of type REG_BINARY named [NoRecentDocsHistory]

modify it so that value reads 01 00 00 00

Grouping multiple open windows

Windows XP will group multiple open windows (IE windows for example) into one group on the task bar to keep the taskbar clear. This can be annoying at times - especially when comparing different web pages because you have to go back to the task bar, click on the group and then click on the page you want and then you only get one page because you have to click on each one separately. I think the default for this is 8 windows - any combination of apps or utilities open.

You can modify this behavior by adding this registry key at:

HKEY_CURRRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced\

add a Dword value of type REG_DWORD named [TaskbarGroupSize]

modify "TaskbarGroupSize" entry to be the number of windows you want open before XP starts to group them on the task bar.

A value of 2 will cause the Taskbar buttons to always group

Another tweak is to disable or enable recent documents history. This can be done at:

HKEY_CURRRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer\

this key should already be present - if it isn't you'll need to add it:

Add a Binary value of type REG_BINARY named [NoRecentDocsHistory]

modify it so that value reads 01 00 00 00

Remove Windows Messenger

It seems that a lot of people are interested in removing Windows Messenger for some reason, though I strongly recommend against this: In Windows XP, Windows Messenger will be the hub of your connection to the .NET world, and now that this feature is part of Windows, I think we're going to see a lot of .NET Passport-enabled Web sites appearing as well. But if you can't stand the little app, there are a couple of ways to get rid of it, and ensure that it doesn't pop up every time you boot into XP. The best way simply utilizes the previous tip:

If you'd like Windows Messenger to show up in the list of programs you can add and remove from Windows, navigate to C:\WINDOWS\inf and open sysoc.inf (see the previous tip for more information about this file). You'll see a line that reads:

msmsgs=msgrocm.dll,OcEntry,msmsgs.inf,hide,7

Change this to the following and Windows Messenger will appear in Add or Remove Programs, then Add/Remove Windows Components, then , and you can remove it for good:

msmsgs=msgrocm.dll,OcEntry,msmsgs.inf,7

Add/Remove optional features of Windows XP

To dramatically expand the list of applications you can remove from Windows XP after installation, navigate to C:\WINDOWS\inf and open the sysoc.inf file. {Opps , if you didn?t find the inf directory, you are right. It?s a hidden folder, so go to Tools>Folder Options> View , enable Show Hidden Files & Folders.}

[Version]

Signature = "$Windows NT$"

DriverVer=07/01/2001,5.1.2600.0

[Components]

NtComponents=ntoc.dll,NtOcSetupProc,,4

WBEM=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,wbemoc.inf,hide,7

Display=desk.cpl,DisplayOcSetupProc,,7

Fax=fxsocm.dll,FaxOcmSetupProc,fxsocm.inf,,7

NetOC=netoc.dll,NetOcSetupProc,netoc.inf,,7

iis=iis.dll,OcEntry,iis.inf,,7

com=comsetup.dll,OcEntry,comnt5.inf,hide,7

dtc=msdtcstp.dll,OcEntry,dtcnt5.inf,hide,7

IndexSrv_System = setupqry.dll,IndexSrv,setupqry.inf,,7

TerminalServer=TsOc.dll, HydraOc, TsOc.inf,hide,2

msmq=msmqocm.dll,MsmqOcm,msmqocm.inf,,6

ims=imsinsnt.dll,OcEntry,ims.inf,,7

fp_extensions=fp40ext.dll,FrontPage4Extensions,fp40ext.inf,,7

AutoUpdate=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,au.inf,hide,7

msmsgs=msgrocm.dll,OcEntry,msmsgs.inf,hide,7

RootAutoUpdate=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,rootau.inf,,7

IEAccess=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,ieaccess.inf,,7



Games=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,games.inf,,7

AccessUtil=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,accessor.inf,,7

CommApps=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,communic.inf,HIDE,7

MultiM=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,multimed.inf,HIDE,7

AccessOpt=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,optional.inf,HIDE,7

Pinball=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,pinball.inf,HIDE,7

MSWordPad=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,wordpad.inf,HIDE,7

ZoneGames=zoneoc.dll,ZoneSetupProc,igames.inf,,7

[Global]

WindowTitle=%WindowTitle%

WindowTitle.StandAlone="*"

The entries that include the text hide or HIDE will not show up in Add/Remove Windows Components by default. To fix this, do a global search and replace for ,hide and change each instance of this to , (a comma). Then, save the file, re launch Add/Remove Windows Components,

Disable Tips

To disable Ballon tips in Windows XP do this registry tweak

Go to : HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced

Create a new DWORD value, name it EnableBalloonTips, and set it equal to 0. If EnableBalloonTips is already there and equal to 1, set it equal to 0. Quit the registry editor, log off, and log back on. Voila! Your computer will stop talking down to you.

Customize Windows Media Player Title Bar

Change the title bar to read Windows Media Player provided by , so if I had entered text ?Abhishek Bhuyan? , it would read: Windows Media Player provided by Abhishek Bhuyan

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Policies\Microsoft Create the Key [WindowsMediaPlayer] Create String value named [TitleBar]

Data Type: REG_SZ // Value Name: TitleBar Double click TitleBar and Enter the text to be displayed in the title bar.

Exit Registry / Reboot

Force Use of Classic Start Menu

This tweak loads the Classic Start Menu and makes it impossible to change back to the Windows XP version

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer

Modify/Create the DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [NoSimpleStartMenu] Value Data: [0 = Default / 1 = Force Classic Start Menu]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Specify Default IE Download Directory

This tweak changes the default directory where downloads initiated in Internet Explorer are stored on the system.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer

Modify/Create String Value of Data type REG_SZ Named [Download Directory] Value Data: [Enter Path to Directory to be Assigned as Defualt for Downloads]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Increase Menu Display Speed

When you click on the Start Menu there is some delay to display the contents , just for no reason. Effects are pretty though. The default speed can be adjusted with a quick registry entry.

The default value is 400. Set it to 0 and the delay is gone. If you are not able to adjust pick a number that suits your style and make the change.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop

Value Data: [Default = 400 / Adjust to Preference]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Hide/Show Internet Explorer Desktop Icon

By default, Windows XP does not show the Internet Explorer icon on the Windows desktop. Using the registry tweak below allows you to control whether or not the Internet Explorer icon is displayed.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [NoInternetIcon] Setting for Value Data: [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Faster Browsing in Windows Explorer on Network Computers

By default, a Windows XP machine connecting to a Windows 95/98/Me computer will search for scheduled tasks or enabled printers on the remote computer. Two sub-keys control this behavior. Deleting them will speed up browsing on the remote computer. [Start] [Run] [Regedit] Go to : HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\RemoteComputer\NameSpace To Disable Scheduled Task Checking Value Name: {D6277990-4C6A-11CF-8D87-00AA0060F5BF} Delete the sub-key in the left pane of Registry Editor To Disable Printer Checking Value Name: {2227A280-3AEA-1069-A2DE-08002B30309D} Delete the sub-key in the left pane of Registry Editor Exit Registry / Reboot

Change the Location of Special Folders

This tweak allows changing the location of special folders on the system. Any of the folders listed in the registry key may be moved.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to : HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\UserShell Folders

Modify/Create String value of Data type REG_SZ Named [Various Folder Names]

Data Type: REG_SZ [String Value] // Value Name: Consult RegEdit for Folder Names

Value Data: [Move the folder to the new desired location using explorer, and then edit the matching folder in RegEdit to reflect the new folder location]

Exit Registry and Reboot

Change the Location of Special Folders

This tweak allows changing the location of special folders on the system. Any of the folders listed in the registry key may be moved.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to : HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\UserShell Folders

Modify/Create String value of Data type REG_SZ Named [Various Folder Names]

Data Type: REG_SZ [String Value] // Value Name: Consult RegEdit for Folder Names

Value Data: [Move the folder to the new desired location using explorer, and then edit the matching folder in RegEdit to reflect the new folder location]

Exit Registry and Reboot

Add Administrator Account to Log In Screen

When Windows XP is first installed it requires you to enter at least one name of a user who will access the computer. Once you create this name the default Administrator account vanishes. To access it, press Ctrl-Alt-Delete twice at the Welcome screen to retrieve the standard Windows 2000 logon dialog. Log on as Administrator from this point. To log the Administrator off, click [Start] [Log Off] and [Log Off] when the [Log Off Windows] selection box appears. The Log On screen with the available users will be displayed.

To Make the Administrator Account Always Visible on the Login Screen use this Registry Tweak.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCALMACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\SpecialAccounts\UserList

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [Administrator] Setting for Value Data: [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Add Administrator Account to Log In Screen

When Windows XP is first installed it requires you to enter at least one name of a user who will access the computer. Once you create this name the default Administrator account vanishes. To access it, press Ctrl-Alt-Delete twice at the Welcome screen to retrieve the standard Windows 2000 logon dialog. Log on as Administrator from this point. To log the Administrator off, click [Start] [Log Off] and [Log Off] when the [Log Off Windows] selection box appears. The Log On screen with the available users will be displayed.

To Make the Administrator Account Always Visible on the Login Screen use this Registry Tweak.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCALMACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\SpecialAccounts\UserList

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [Administrator] Setting for Value Data: [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Connected Web Files and Folders

Connecting web files and folders allows a primary .htm or .html file to be moved in conjunction with files associated with the primary document. Once the primary document has been defined, create a sub-folder using the same name as the primary document but assign it a .files extension. Whenever the primary file is moved, the sub-folder will also move and remain as a sub-folder of the primary.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer

Setting for Value Data: [0 = Enabled (Default) / 1 = Disabled]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Increase Internet Download Connections

Increase Simultaneous Internet Download Connections. Increases the number of allowed simultaneous connections to ten (10).

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [MaxConnectionsPer1_0Server] Setting for Value Data: [0000000a]

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [MaxConnectionsPerServer] Setting for Value Data: [0000000a]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Create a Hidden User Account

This tweak allows an account that is normally displayed on the Welcome screen to be hidden from view. To log on using the account it's necessary to use the Log On To Windows dialog box similar to the one in Windows 2000 i.e. press CTRL+ALT+DEL twice.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\SpecialAccounts\UserList



Setting for Value Data: [0 = Account is Hidden / 1 = Enabled]


Exit Registry / Reboot

While the account is hidden on the Welcome screen, note that the account profile will be visible in C:\Documents and Settings or wherever user profiles are stored as well as in Local Users and Groups.

Hide/Show My Documents Folder on Desktop

By default, Windows XP does not show the My Documents folder on the Windows desktop. Using the registry tweak below allows you to control whether or not My Documents is displayed.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\CLSID\{450D8FBA-AD25-11D0-98A8-0800361B1103}\ShellFolder

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [Attributes] Setting for Value Data: [Default = 0xf0400174 / Hidden = 0xf0500174]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Manage Internet Explorer Error Reporting

This tweak removes the IE Error Reporting tool from appearing with the option to send browser debugging reports to Microsoft.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]


Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Main

Note:- Create both values listed below and set according to the bold type for the tweak to function properly.

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [IEWatsonEnabled] Value Data: [0 - Disabled / 1 - Enabled]

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [IEWatsonDisabled] Value Data: [0 - Disabled / 1 - Enabled]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Create Legal Notice Logon Dialog Box

In situations where you need users to read a legal notice before logging on, this tweak will create the caption for the notice.

Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Modify/Create String Value of Data type REG_SZ Named [LegalNoticeCaption] Value Data for LegalNoticeCaption: [Type the Caption for the Dialog Box]

Modify/Create String Value of Data type REG_SZ Named [LegalNoticeText] Value Data for LegalNoticeText: [Type the Data for the Legal Notice]

Exit Registry / Reboot

QoS (Quality Of Service) Bandwidth Reserve Setting

By default, Windows XP reserves 20% of the connection bandwidth for QoS traffic. This tweak allows the setting to be altered to a different percentage of connection bandwidth. If the system uses mo

e than a single adapter for network connections, each adapter may be set individually by navigating to:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Psched\Parameters\Adapters\{Adpater-ID} rather than HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Psched

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Psched

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [NonBestEffortLimit] Setting for Value Data: [Enter as a Percentage / Default Value = 20]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Welcome Screen Logon Vs Classic Logon

This tweak specifies whether the Welcome screen or the Classic logon will be used to access Windows XP.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [LogonType] Value Data: [0 - Classic Mode / 1 - Welcome Screen]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Customize Logon and Security Dialog Title

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\ CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Modify/Create String Value of Data type REG_SZ Named [Welcome] Value Data: [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Exit Registry / Reboot

This is the message displayed on the Classic Logon box, not the XP ?Welcome? logon screen


[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\ CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Modify/Create String Value of Data type REG_SZ Named [LogonPrompt] Value Data: [Enter the text of the message]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Remove Links Folder in Favorites

The Links folder is part of Favorites whether it's being accessed through Internet Explorer or the Favorites menu in the Start Menu. This tweak will remove it from those locations.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Toolbar

Modify/Create String Value of Data type REG_SZ Named [LinksFolderName] Value Data: [Set the String Value to a blank string]

Open Internet Explorer and manually delete the Links folder from Favorites Menu.

The Links folder will not be recreated.

Exit Registry / Reboot

Change the Registered Organization/Owner of Windows XP

This tweak allows modification of the registered owner and organization of the Windows XP software.

Note:- This tweak has nothing to do with Windows Product Activation (WPA) and will not allow you to register illegal XP software.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion

Modify/Create String Value of Data type REG_SZ Named [RegisteredOrganization] or [RegisteredOwner] Setting for Value Data: [Modify the Values to Reflect Current Information]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Enable/Disable Save Password in DUN

This tweak saves user passwords for Dial Up Networking so they do not have to be re-entered each session.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\RasMan\Parameters

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [DisableSavePassword] Setting for Value Data: [0 = Disabled (Passwords Saved) / 1 = Enabled (Passwords Not Saved)]

reregister all .dll files with registry

I ran across this the other day on another site and I thought that a couple people might find it helpful, so here we go:


1) First go Start/Run, and type in 'cmd' to bring up the Command Prompt.

2) Type 'CD \' and hit enter.

3) Type 'DIR *.dll /s /b > regdll.bat' and hit enter.

4) Type 'Notepad regdll.bat' and hit enter.

Now Notepad is going to bring up a list of your .dll files, nevermind that for a moment.

---

5) Now type 'Path' and hit enter to see your current path. It will bring up something like: Path=c:\Windows;c:\windows\Command

6) (supplement your Windows Version, ex: C:\WINNT, or C:\Windows) Now type: 'Path=c:\windows;c:\windows\Command;c:\Windows\Prog
ram~\Accessories' and hit enter.

7) Verify again by typing 'Path' and hitting enter, and then type: 'C:\WINNT\System32\Regsvr32.exe /s C:\' and hit enter again.

8) Now, go back to Notepad and if you have Win98 use the replace feature in Wordpad (CTRL + H) or notepad to search for 'C:\' and replace it with this: 'C:\Windows\System\Regsvr32.exe /s C:\'

If you have Win2000, etc. use the replace command in note pad to search for 'C:\' and replace it with this: 'C:\WINNT\System32\Regsvr32.exe /s C:\'

*Be sure to type the replace string exactly like above or it won't work*

9) Use "Replace All" to make the changes to the entire file.

10) When it finishes, save it, exit notepad or wordpad, and return to the Command Prompt.

11) Type 'regdll' and press enter. If you followed the above steps correctly it will now go through and re-register all your .dll files.

Auto Reboot on System Crash

By default, when the Windows XP operating system crashes an automatic reboot of the system occurs. While this behavior can be convenient, the downside is the error message accompanying the crash is not visible. Often times this information can be a great help in troubleshooting the source of the crash. This behavior can be modified in two ways; via the registry or using the System Properties property sheet.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Registry Key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\CrashControl

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [AutoReboot] Setting for Value Data: [0 = AutoReboot Disabled / 1 = AutoReboot Enabled]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Open System Properties via Start > Control Panel > Performance and Maintenance > System

[System Properties may also be opened using the WinKey+Pause key combination]

Select the Advanced tab and then click Settings in the Startup and Recovery section

In System Failure section, clear the checkbox next to Automatically Restart

Click OK and OK to exit

Enable/Disable Active Window Tracking to Mouse Movements

When the mouse is moved over an open window it automatically sets the focus to that particular window. It does not bring the window to the foreground of the open windows.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Mouse

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [ActiveWindowTracking] Setting for Value Data: [0 = ActiveWindowTracking Disabled / 1 = ActiveWindowTracking Enabled]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Auto Disconnect for Internet Explorer

Use this edit to automatically disconnect from Internet Explorer after a specified length of time has elapsed. Use this trick on anyone whom you don?t like using your computer with net J

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanServer\Parameters

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [Autodisconnect]

Value Data: [Enter a new disconnect time. Use Hexadecimal if you are unfamiliar with Binary]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Enable/Disable System Properties Access from My Computer

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]


Go to: HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [NoPropertiesMyComputer] Value Data: [0 - Display Properties / 1 - Hide Properties]

Enable/Disable Run Commands Specific to the Registry

This tweak controls the use of the Run command on the local machine

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\ Policies\Explorer

Create a DWORD value of Data Type REG_DWORD for each Run function that will be disabled.

Modify/Create the Value Name [DisableLocalMachineRun] Modify/Create the Value Name [DisableLocalMachineRunOnce]

Modify/Create the Value Name [DisableCurrentUserRun] Modify/Create the Value Name [DisableCurrentUserRunOnce]

Setting for Value Data: [0 = Disabled / 1 = Enabled]

Exit Registry / Reboot

Modify Control Panel Categories

Even if you like the new style for Control Panel, you might at times wish you could shift some items around into a different category. It's possible.

[Start] [Run] [Regedit]

Go to: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Control Panel\Extended Properties\{305CA226-D286-468e-B848-2B2E8E697B74} 2

Modify/Create DWORD Value of Data type REG_DWORD Named [Choose one of the applets with .cpl extension]

Setting for Value Data: [Select the value from table below]

Other Control Panel Options 0 Appearance and Themes 1 Printers and Other Hardware 2 Network and Internet Connections 3 Sounds, Speed, and Audio Devices 4 Performance and Maintenance 5 Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options 6 Accessibility Options 7 Add or Remove Programs 8 User Accounts 9

To further customize the items that appear in the new Control Panel, do a search of your system for all files that end in .cpl extension. If they aren't already listed, you can add them with a new

WORD value and then assign them to a category of your choosing.

Create a right-click command prompt option

You can right-click a folder to get a list of actions you can apply to it. Here?s a way to create an action on that right-click menu that opens a command prompt window with that folder as the current directory. In a text editor such as Notepad, type the following exactly:

Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

[HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\Folder\shell\Cmd Here]

@=?Command &Prompt Here?



[HKEY_CLASSES-ROOT\Folder\shell\Cmd Here\command]


@=?cmd.exe /k pushd %L?

Save the file with any name you want, with a .reg extension. Then double-click the saved file and choose Yes to merge the file?s information into the Registry. You can delete the file. Right-click any folder and you?ll see the CommandPrompt Here option.

Uninstall Programs Manually

Just because Windows XP has the Add/Remove Programs feature it doesn't mean your application will appear in the list. Furthermore, even if it does appear, it's no guarantee that the uninstall feature will work. When you run across one of these situations the items listed below will help in getting rid of the application. Be aware that these steps may not remove everything associated with the application and can impact other applications on the computer. Have a backup or restore point and use caution.

Find the directory for the application and delete all the files in the directory. Delete the directory.

Open regedit and navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE and find the folder for the application. Delete the folder.

Open regedit and navigate to HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE and find the folder for the application. Delete the folder.

To remove the application entry from Add/Remove Programs (if present) open regedit and navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall and find the folder for the application. Delete the folder.

Some applications have Services attached to them. If this is the case, navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services, locate and delete the service.

In Windows Explorer, navigate to the individual user settings and delete program references. Common places to check would be:



C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\Startup and delete relevant entries.


C:\Documents and Settings\%YourUserID%\Start Menu\Programs and delete relevant entries.

[Do this for each User ID listed]

C:\Documents and Settings\%YourUserID%\Start Menu\Programs\Startup and delete relevant entries.

[Do this for each User ID listed]

If no entries were found in the previous step and the application launches automatically, navigate to

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Windows

and delete the entry.

Adjusting System Restore values

The new System Restore feature in Windows XP automatically backs up a snapshot of your system, including your Registry, every 24 hours. It also saves restore points for 90 days. Neither of these values is directly editable in the System Restore program, but you can change them in the Registry. Go to:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\SystemRestore

You?ll find an assortment of settings here. To change the interval between automatically created restore points, change the RPGlobalInterval setting. To change the number of days that a restore point is retained, change the RPLifeInterval setting.

System Restore time intervals are measured in seconds, not days, so you must convert the number of days you want into seconds. There are 86,400 seconds in a day, so multiply 86,400 by the number of days you want to determine the value. (There are 3,600 seconds in an hour, I hope you know)

Erase the swap file at shutdown

You might be concerned about someone browsing your users? swap files and gathering up little bits of their sensitive data. A remote possibility, to be sure, but it could happen. For that extra measure of security, go to:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Control\Session Manager\Memory Management

Set the ClearPageFileAtShutdown DWORD to 1. This will make shutdowns take longer, because it overwrites everything in the swap file with zeroes. Don?t turn this feature on unless you have a serious security threat.

Delete the Files Stored on This Computer category in the My Computer window

In Windows XP, the My Computer window?s listing is broken down by categories: Hard Disk Drives, Devices with Removable Storage, and so on. One of these categories is Files Stored on This Computer, which appears at the top of the My Computer window. If a user doesn?t need it , you can get rid of it. To do so, go to:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\MyComputer\ NameSpace\Delegate Folders

Delete the {59031a47-3f72-44a7-89c55595fe6b30ee} subkey to remove the category.

Change the desktop cleanup frequency

Through Display Properties (Desktop tab, Customize Desktop button, General tab), you can turn on and off a feature that runs the Desktop Cleanup Wizard every 60 days. You don?t have an option to set a different interval there, but you can change the interval in the Registry. To do so, go to:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Desktop\CleanupWiz

Change the Days Between Clean Up Value to some other number of days (in decimal format).

Adjusting System Restore values

The new System Restore feature in Windows XP automatically backs up a snapshot of your system, including your Registry, every 24 hours. It also saves restore points for 90 days. Neither of these values is directly editable in the System Restore program, but you can change them in the Registry. Go to:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\SystemRestore

You?ll find an assortment of settings here. To change the interval between automatically created restore points, change the RPGlobalInterval setting. To change the number of days that a restore point is retained, change the RPLifeInterval setting.

System Restore time intervals are measured in seconds, not days, so you must convert the number of days you want into seconds. There are 86,400 seconds in a day, so multiply 86,400 by the number of days you want to determine the value. (There are 3,600 seconds in an hour, I hope you know)

Disable the display of last user name

By default Windows XP displays the last user name. This may be a security problem for some users who doest want to let others know about there login details. Here’s the registry trick to disable it :
REGEDIT 4
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\policies\system]
"dontdisplaylastusername"="DWORD:0"
Note: 0 means disabled 1 means enables

Display legal notice on startup

Wanna tell your friends about the do’s and dont’s in your computer when they login in your absence. Well you can do it pretty easily by displaying a legal notice at system start up.
REGEDIT 4
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\policies\system]
"legalnoticecaption"="enter your notice caption"
"legalnoticetext"="enter your legal notice text"

MSN login details

By default Windows XP provides communication tool for communicating with your friends over the net using MSN messenger, MSN explorer. But did you ever wanted to know about the servers and protocols MSN uses for communicating your computer so easily and smoothly to the highly crowded MSN servers. Here you can search for info:
just browse to this location..select passport and on the right pane you will see the details..
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Passport

Default program for files of different extensions

Browse to this registry key..select extensions and on the right pane view the options..
You can edit the default programe for different extensions simple double clicking the key..
Note: note that there is a ^ sign in between the path and extension of the programe.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Extensions

Default program for files of different extensions

Browse to this registry key..select extensions and on the right pane view the options..
You can edit the default programe for different extensions simple double clicking the key..
Note: note that there is a ^ sign in between the path and extension of the programe.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Extensions

Automatic Administrator Login

Well here’s the trick which you can use to prove that Windows XP is not at all secure as multi-user operating system. Hacking the system registry from any account having access to system registry puts you in to the administrator account.
REGEDIT 4
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon]
"AutoAdminLogon"="1"

Not only this option but you will find many more option in this registry path like changing default user name,auto start of windows shell (by default explorer.exe),option to change the windows default shell.

Sort menus alphabetically

When you install a new program for a user, it doesn?t find its place in the alphabetical Start menu hierarchy right away; it hangs out at the bottom for a little while. If your users employ the Classic Start menu, they can re-alphabetize it manually by right-clicking the taskbar and choosing Properties, clicking the Customize button next to the Classic Start Menu, and clicking the Sort button. With the Windows XP style of Start menu, however, you don?t have an equivalent button. To make Windows always alphabetize the list, remove the permissions from the Registry key that controls the sort order for the Start menu. To do so, go to:

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\MenuOrder

Choose Edit | Permissions and click the Advanced button. Deselect the Inherit From Parent The Permission Entries That Apply To Child Objects check box and then click Copy when the Security dialog box pops up. Click OK and clear the Full Control entry for your account and all security groups you are a member of. Leave only Read permission.

Remember back in the good old days of Windows 3.1 when you could open up the Win.ini file in a text editor and remove an item from the RUN= line to disable it from running at startup? With Windows

x and above, the Win.ini file became less useful because 32-bit programs were set to run at startup from within the Registry instead.

One way to selectively disable programs from loading at startup is to use MSCONFIG (from the Run command) to deselect certain items. Another way to remove them is to edit the Registry directly. Consider the following locations:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

for applications that start up for all users

HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

for applications that start up when the current user logs on

Remove the entry for a program by right-clicking it and selecting Delete to prevent it from loading.

37. Change categories in the Control Panel

Windows XP?s Control Panel is broken down by category in the default Category view, but the group to which an item belongs is not always obvious. If you disagree with Microsoft?s assignments, you can switch them around. To assign a different category to an item, go to:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Control Panel\Extended Properties\ {305CA226-D286-468e-B848-2B2E8E697B74} 2

Find the item you want to change and double-click it to bring up a dialog box. Change the item?s DWORD value to your preference. Use the Table given below as a guide (shown with decimal numbers, which is the way you should enter them).

DWORD value to set

Other Control Panel Options 0


Appearance and Themes 1

Printers and Other Hardware 2

Network and Internet Connections 3

Sounds, Speed, and Audio Devices 4

Performance and Maintenance 5

Date, Time, Language, and Regional Options 6

Accessibility Options 7

Add or Remove Programs 8

Problem with using the Network resource error

do the following to solve this error


1. Click Start, click Run, type regedit in the Open box, and then click OK.
2. Locate and then double-click the following registry subkey:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Contro l\Lsa
3. In the right pane, double-click restrictanonymous.
4. Make sure that the value in the Value data box is set to 0, and then click OK.
5. Close Registry Editor.
6. Restart the computer.

Enabling / Disabling the Ctrl Alt Del from logon screen

Do the following for enabling/disabling the Ctrl+Alt+Del Login Screen

Start the registry editor (regedit.exe)

Move to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows
NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Double click on DisableCAD (create a variable of type REG_DWORD if it does not exist)

Set to 1 if you don't want to have to press Ctrl-Alt-Del, and set to 0 if you do.

Click OK

Close the registry editor

Reboot the machine

Changing the Registered Owner, Organization in Windows XP

By editing registry you can Change this

Open registry editor "regedit"

Go to the path

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion

Modify the values of RegisteredOwner and RegisteredOrganization

No Shutdown

Wanna play with your friends by removing the shutdown option from start menu in their computer.
Just hack it down !!!
Regedit 4
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer
"NoClose"="DWORD:1"

Grouping multiple open windows

Windows XP will group multiple open windows (IE windows for example) into one group on the task bar to keep the taskbar clear. This can be annoying at times - especially when comparing different web pages because you have to go back to the task bar, click on the group and then click on the page you want and then you only get one page because you have to click on each one separately. I think the default for this is 8 windows - any combination of apps or utilities open.

You can modify this behavior by adding this registry key at:



HKEY_CURRRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced\


add a Dword value of type REG_DWORD named [TaskbarGroupSize]

modify "TaskbarGroupSize" entry to be the number of windows you want open before XP starts to group them on the task bar.

A value of 2 will cause the Taskbar buttons to always group

Another tweak is to disable or enable recent documents history. This can be done at:

HKEY_CURRRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer\

this key should already be present - if it isn't you'll need to add it:

Add a Binary value of type REG_BINARY named [NoRecentDocsHistory]

modify it so that value reads 01 00 00 00

39. Disable Tips

To disable Ballon tips in Windows XP do this registry tweak

Go to : HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\Advanced

Create a new DWORD value, name it EnableBalloonTips, and set it equal to 0. If EnableBalloonTips is already there and equal to 1, set it equal to 0. Quit the registry editor, log off, and log back on. Voila! Your computer will stop talking down to you.

Speeding Up Share Viewing



This is a great tweak. Before I found it, I was always smashing my head against the table waiting to view shares on other computers. Basically, when you connect to another computer with Windows XP, it checks for any Scheduled tasks on that computer - a fairly useless task, but one that can add up to 30 seconds of waiting on the other end - not good! Fortunately, it’s fairly easy to disable this process. First, navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE/Software/Microsoft/Windows/Current Version/Explorer/RemoteComputer/NameSpace in the Registry. Below that, there should be a key called {D6277990-4C6A-11CF-8D87-00AA0060F5BF}. Just delete this, and after a restart, Windows will no longer check for scheduled tasks - mucho performance improvement!

Add/Remove optional features of Windows XP

To dramatically expand the list of applications you can remove from Windows XP after installation, navigate to C:\WINDOWS\inf and open the sysoc.inf file. {Opps , if you didn?t find the inf directory, you are right. It?s a hidden folder, so go to Tools>Folder Options> View , enable Show Hidden Files & Folders.}

[Version]

Signature = "$Windows NT$"

DriverVer=07/01/2001,5.1.2600.0

[Components]

NtComponents=ntoc.dll,NtOcSetupProc,,4

WBEM=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,wbemoc.inf,hide,7

Display=desk.cpl,DisplayOcSetupProc,,7

Fax=fxsocm.dll,FaxOcmSetupProc,fxsocm.inf,,7

NetOC=netoc.dll,NetOcSetupProc,netoc.inf,,7

iis=iis.dll,OcEntry,iis.inf,,7

com=comsetup.dll,OcEntry,comnt5.inf,hide,7

dtc=msdtcstp.dll,OcEntry,dtcnt5.inf,hide,7


IndexSrv_System = setupqry.dll,IndexSrv,setupqry.inf,,7

TerminalServer=TsOc.dll, HydraOc, TsOc.inf,hide,2

msmq=msmqocm.dll,MsmqOcm,msmqocm.inf,,6

ims=imsinsnt.dll,OcEntry,ims.inf,,7

fp_extensions=fp40ext.dll,FrontPage4Extensions,fp40ext.inf,,7

AutoUpdate=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,au.inf,hide,7

msmsgs=msgrocm.dll,OcEntry,msmsgs.inf,hide,7

RootAutoUpdate=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,rootau.inf,,7

IEAccess=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,ieaccess.inf,,7



Games=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,games.inf,,7

AccessUtil=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,accessor.inf,,7


CommApps=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,communic.inf,HIDE,7


MultiM=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,multimed.inf,HIDE,7

AccessOpt=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,optional.inf,HIDE,7

Pinball=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,pinball.inf,HIDE,7

MSWordPad=ocgen.dll,OcEntry,wordpad.inf,HIDE,7

ZoneGames=zoneoc.dll,ZoneSetupProc,igames.inf,,7

[Global]

WindowTitle=%WindowTitle%

WindowTitle.StandAlone="*"

The entries that include the text hide or HIDE will not show up in Add/Remove Windows Components by default. To fix this, do a global search and replace for ,hide and change each instance of this to , (a comma). Then, save the file, re launch Add/Remove Windows Components,

Customising Your PC

We all use various ways to customise PC to our needs. But doing it by editing is real fun. But be careful editing registery can be very dangerous for your PC, if not done carefully. Never forget to take back up of registery before trying to edit it. In subsquent post I shall share some registry hacks with you.

Having Your Favorites And Start Menus Sort Alphabetically

If your Start Menu Program or Favorites are not sorting alphabetically, it is
easy to fix this:
Start regedit
Go to HKEY_CURRENT_USER/Software/Microsoft/Windows/CurrentVersion/Explorer/MenuOrder Under here is are Favorites and Start Menu folders
In each there is a value called Order
Simply delete (or rename this) and restart Winodws
Your Favorites or Start Menus should now sort alphabetically

Display Message When Windows Boots

You might want to display a banner when a user log on, a banner that contains any kind of message you may wish to display. You may wish to display warning to unauthorised users or your Company's policy or Legal warning. All is possible!
Do as follows-
Open registry and navigate to
HLM\Software\Microsoft\WindowsNT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon
Create a new string value with the name "LegalNoticeCaption" (without quotes)
Modify it to the message you want to display. Message will be displayed each time Windows boots from next logon!

Add Copy to/Move to Command to Right-Click

This is an extremely useful hack, which adds "Copy to folder" and "Move to folder" command to the right-click command menu of every file and folder. When you select, "Copy to folder" command, you will get an Explorer style menu where you can navigate and choose the destination folder.

You need to do the following to achieve this:-
Navigate to: HCR\AllFilesystemObjects\shellex\ContextMenuHandlers
Create a new key here called "Copy To". Change the default value to
{C2FBB630-2971-11D1-A18C-00C04FD75D13}
Then, in the same key(HCR\AllFilesystemObjects\shellex\ContextMenuHandlers), create another key named"Move To"
Change its value to
{C2FBB630-2971-11D1-A18C-00C04FD75D13}
Changes will be available with immediate effects!

Making Notes With Notepad!

Lets have something different for a change.
This is real cool for people who use notepad to write down any info on a day to day basis...
* Create a blank text file with .LOG (in caps) as the first line of the file, followed by a carriage return (Enter) and save this file.* Double-click the file to open it and notice that Notepad appends the current date and time to the end of the file and places the cursor on the line after. * Type your notes and then save and close the file.
Each time you open the file, Notepad repeats the process, appending the time and date to the end of the file and placing the cursor below it!

Registry Disassembled a basic tutorial

The registry is a hierarchical database that contains virtually all information about your computer's configuration. Under previous version of Windows, those setting where contained in files like config.sys, autoexec.bat, win.ini, system.ini, control.ini and so on. From this you can understand how important the registry is. The structure of the registry is similar to the ini files structure, but it goes beyond the concept of ini files because it offers a hierarchical structure, similar to the folders and files on hard disk. In fact the procedure to get to the elements of the registry is similar to the way to get to folders and files.
In this section I would be examing the Win95\98 registry only although NT is quite similar.

The Registry Editor
The Registry Editor is a utility by the filename regedit.exe that allows you to see, search, modify and save the registry database of Windows. The Registry Editor doesn't validate the values you are writing: it allows any operation. So you have to pay close attention, because no error message will be shown if you make a wrong operation.
To launch the Registry Editor simply run RegEdit.exe ( under WinNT run RegEdt32.exe with administer privileges).
The registry editor is divided into two sectios in the left one there is a hierarchical structure of the database (the screen looks like Windows Explorer) in the right one there are the values.

The registry is organized into keys and subkeys. Each key contains a value entry , each one has a name, a type or a class and the value itself. The name is a string that identifies the value to the key. The length and the format of the value is dependent on the data type.

As you can see with the Registry Editor, the registry is divided into five principal keys: there is no way to add or delete keys at this level. Only two of these keys are effectively saved on hard disk: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE and HKEY_USERS. The others are jusr branches of the main keys or are dynamically created by Windows.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
This key contains any hardware, applications and services information. Several hardware information is updated automatically while the computer is booting. The data stored in this key is shared with any user. This handle has many subkeys:

Config
Contains configuration data for different hardware configurations.
Enum
This is the device data. For each device in your computer, you can find information such as the device type, the hardware manufacturer, device drivers and the configuration.
Hardware
This key contains a list of serial ports, processors and floating point processors.
Network
Contains network information.
Security
Shows you network security information.
Software
This key contains data about installed software.
System
It contains data that checks which device drivers are used by Windows and how they are configured.

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
This key is an alias of the branch HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Classes and contains OLE, drag'n'drop, shortcut and file association information.

HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG
This key is also an alias. It contains a copy of the branch HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Config, with the current computer configuration.

HKEY_DYN_DATA
Some information stored in the registry changes frequently, so Windows maintains part of the registry in memory instead of on the hard disk. For example it stores PnP information and computer performance. This key has two sub keys

Config Manager
This key contains all hardware information problem codes, with their status. There is also the sub key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Enum, but written in a different way.
PerfStats
It contains performance data about system and network

HKEY_USERS
This important key contains the sub key .Default and another key for each user that has access to the computer. If there is just one user, only .Default key exists. . Each sub key maintains the preferences of each user, like the desktop colors, the fonts used, and also the settings of many programs. If you open a user subkey you will find five important subkeys:

AppEvent
It contains the path of audio files that Windows plays when some events happen.
Control Panel
Here are the settings defined in the Control Panel. They used to be stored in win.ini and control.ini.
Keyboard Layouts
It contains some advanced code which identifies the actual keyboard disposition how it is set into the Control Panel.
Network
This key stores subkeys that describe current and recent network shortcuts.
RemoteAccess
The settings of Remote Access are stored here.
Software
Contains all software settings. This data was stored in win.ini and private .ini files.

HKEY_CURRENT_USER
It is an alias to current user of HKEY_USERS. If your computer is not configured for multi-users usage, it points to the subkey .Default of HKEY_USERS.

Description of .reg file

Here I am assuming that you already have a .reg file on your hard disk and want to know more about how it is structured.Now do not double click the .reg file or it's content will be added to the registry, of course there will be warning message that pops up. Now to view the properties of the .reg file open it in notepad.
To do so first launch notepad by going to Start>Programs>Accessories>Notepad.
Then through the open menu open the .reg file.
Now the thing that differentiates .reg files from other files is the word REGEDIT4. It is found to be the first word in all .reg files. If this word is not there then the registry editor cannot recognize the file to be a .reg file.
Then follows the key declaration which has to be done within square brackets and with the full path.If the key does not exist then it will be created.
After the key declaration you will see a list of values that have to be set in the particular key in the registry.The values look like this:

"value name"=type:value

Value name is in double commas. Type can be absent for string values, dword: for dword values and hex: for binary values. For all other values you have to use the code hex(#): , where # indicate the API code of the type.
So:

"My string" = "string value" is a string
"My dword" = dword:123456789 is a dword
"My binary" = hex:AA,BB,CC is a standard binary
"My other type" = hex(2):AA,BB,00 is an expand string


Important Note: expand string has API code = 2 and extended string has API code = 7.

As you can see, strings are in double quotes, dword is hexadecimal and binary is a sequence of hexadecimal byte pairs, with a comma between each. If you want to add a back slash into a string remember to repeat it two times, so the value "c:\Windows" will be "c:\\Windows".
Before write a new .reg file, make sure you do this else you will get an error message.

Command Line Registry Arguments

FILENAME.REG to merge a .reg file with the registry
/L:SYSTEM to specify the position of SYSTEM.DAT
/R:USER to specify the position of USER.DAT
/e FILENAME.REG [KEY] to export the registry to a file. If the key is specified, the whole branch will be exported.
/c FILENAME.REG to substitute the entire registry with a .reg file
/s to work silently, without prompt information or Warnings.

That wraps up the Windows Registry.

regedit.exe and regedit32.exe differences

Have you ever noticed that there are two versions of the Registry Editor on your computer? Ever wondered why? Well let me just give you a little insight!

It all depends on your Operating System. If you have Windows 2000 :

Regedit.exe

Regedit.exe is included with Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 primarily for its search capability. You can use Regedit.exe to make changes in the Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 registry, but you cannot use it to view or edit all functions or data types on Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000.

The following limitations exist in the Regedit.exe version that is included with Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000:

You cannot set the security for registry keys.
You cannot view, edit, or search the value data types <>REG_EXPAND_SZ and <>REG_MULTI_SZ. If you try to view a <>REG_EXPAND_SZ value, Regedit.exe displays it as a binary data type. If you try to edit either of these data types, Regedit.exe saves it as <>REG_SZ, and the data type no longer performs its intended function.
You cannot save or restore keys as hive files.
Microsoft recommends that you use Regedit.exe only for its search capabilities on a Windows NT 4.0-based or Windows 2000-based computer.

Regedt32.exe

Regedt32.exe is the configuration editor for Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000. Regedt32.exe is used tomodify the Windows NT configuration database, or the Windows NTregistry. This editor allows you to view or modify the Windows NT registry.The editor provides views of windows that represent sections of theregistry, named hives. Each window displays two sections. On the leftside, there are folders that represent registry keys. On the right side,there are the values associated with the selected registry key. Regedt32 isa powerful tool, and you must use it with extreme caution when you changeregistry values. Missing or incorrect values in the registry can make theWindows installation unusable.

Note: Unlike Regedit.exe, Regedt32.exe does not support importing and exporting registration entries (.reg) files.

Or..Windows XP and Windows Server 2003

Regedit.exe

Regedit.exe is the configuration editor for Windows XP and Windows Server 2003. Regedit.exe is used tomodify the Windows NT configuration database, or the Windows NTregistry. This editor allows you to view or modify the Windows NT registry. It supports setting security on registry keys, viewing and editing <>REG_EXPAND_SZ and <>REG_MULTI_SZ, and saving and restoring hive files.On the leftside, there are folders that represent registry keys. On the right side,there are the values associated with the selected registry key. Regedit isa powerful tool. You must use extreme caution when you use it to changeregistry values. Missing or incorrect values in the registry can make theWindows installation unusable.

Regedt32.exe

In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, Regedt32.exe is a small program that just runs Regedit.exe.

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